Author Archive


May 8th, 2012

Dear friends,

While I was doing my graduation, I visited my home during our college vacation. It was the time when my maternal uncle was admitted in the hospital due to the complications of Diabetes. So my relatives asked me to have an interaction with his doctor, just to know his health status and prognosis. Next day, I visited the physician’s cabin and introduced myself. When I asked about my uncle’s heath status, he said: “It’s a case of ESRD, so there is little hope ”. I had no courage to ask him, “What is ESRD?” So, I nodded my head as if I have understood everything. That time, Internet was not so popular; hence I had to refer so many books to learn that my uncle was having End Stage Renal Disease. As a medical student, this was excusable, but when we start our practice as a doctor, such abbreviations (at least the commonly used ones) should be familiar for us, because the medical reports, books, articles, and even our patients use these abbreviations very commonly!

Keeping that incident in the mind, I started collecting some abbreviations for my personal reference. Here I am sharing a few important abbreviations we use in our day-to-day practice. The abbreviations used in pre-clinical and para-clinical subjects are not included here.

1. General Medicine

  1. WNL: — within the normal limit.
  2. CFS: … —Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  3. AEC: … —Absolute esonophil count
  4. ADH —Antidiuretic  hormone.
  5. ACE —Angiotensin  converting enzyme.
  6. BMI —Body mass index.
  7. BMR —Basal matabolic rate.
  8. CPK —Serum creatinine phosphokinase.
  9. EFA —Essential fatty acids
  10. EAA —Essential amino acids
  11. FFA —Free fatty acid.
  12. HDL —High density lipoprotein
  13. LDL —Low density lipoprotein
  14. MUFA —Mono unsaturated fatty acid.
  15. VLDL —Very low density lipoprotein
  16. AFB —Acid fast bacilli.
  17. ASO —Anti streptolysin O
  18. ANA —Anti nucliar antibody.
  19. ATD —Auto immune thyroid disease
  20. BCG —Bacillus calmitte guirine.
  21. CMV —Cyto megalo virus.
  22. CIN —Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  23. CMI —Cell mediated immunity.
  24. CEA —Carcino embryonic antigen.
  25. CKV —Chikunguna virus
  26. CIS —Carcinoma in situ.
  27. EBV —Ebstin barr virus.
  28. HLA —Histocompatibility locus antigen.
  29. HSV —Herpes simplex virus.
  30. HHV —Human herpes virus.
  31. HPV —Human papilloma virus.
  32. NHL —Non hodgkins lymphoma —
  33. PPD —Purified protein derivative.
  34. PSA —Prostate specific antigen
  35. RA Factor —Rheumatoid arthritis factor.
  36. TNM —Tumour nodes metastasis.
  37. ATS —Anti tetanus serum
  38. DEC —Diethyl carbamazine.
  39. AD —Alzheimer’s disease.
  40. ADS —Aids dementia complex.
  41. HIE —Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.
  42. IVDSA —Intravenous digital substraction angiography.
  43. ICP —Intra cranial pressure.
  44. MID —Multi infarct dementia.
  45. SPECT —Single photon emission computed tomography.
  46. TD —Tardive dyskinesia.
  47. VEP —Visual evoked potential.
  48. TBM —Tuberculous meningitis.
  49. WA —Wernicke’s aphasia.
  50. UMN —Upper motor neuron.
  51. TIA —Transient ischaemic attack.
  52. MSLT —Multi sleep latency test.
  53. MND —Motor neuron disease.
  54. PET —Positron emission tomography.
  55. NMS —Neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  56. SNS —Sympathetic nervous system.
  57. SAS —Sleep apnoea syndrome.
  58. SAH —Sub arachnoid haemorrhage.
  59. SSPE —Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
  60. SND —Striatonigral degeneration.
  61. SCA —Spino cerebellar ataxia.
  62. NREM —Non rapid eye movement
  63. .NTD —Neural tube defect.
  64. REM —Rapid eye movement.
  65. RIND —Reversible ischaemic neurologic deficit.
  66. OPCA —Olivo ponto cerebellar atrophy.
  67. MS —Multiple sclerosis.
  68. ICSOL —Intra cranial space occupying lesions.
  69. CSM —Cerebro spinal meningitis.
  70. LMN —Lower motor neuron
  71. CVA —Cerebro vascular accident.
  72. PD —Parkinson’s disease.
  73. PVS —Persistent vegitative state.
  74. CA —Conduction aphasia.
  75. EEG —Electro encephalography.
  76. ENMG —Electro neuro myography.
  77. CJD —Creutzfeldt jakob disease.
  78. SLE —Systemic lupus erythmatosis.
  79. RF —Rheumatic fever.
  80. PUO —Pyrexia of unknown origin
  81. MDRTF —Multi drug resistant typhoid fever.
  82. MDT —Multi drug therapy.
  83. MOF —Multi organ failure.
  84. MODS —Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.
  85. MSOF —Multi system organ failure.
  86. MDR —Multi drug resistance.
  87. ICU —Intenssive care unit.
  88. ICCU —Intenssive cardic care unit.
  89. JE —Japanese encephalitis.
  90. BRE; benign rolantic epilepsy
  91. LGV —Lympho granuloma venereum.
  92. MCTD —Mixed connective tissue disorder.
  93. DOA —Dead on admission.
  94. DAMA —Discharged against medical advice.
  95. DF —Dengue fever.
  96. DHF —Dengue haemorrhagic fever.
  97. DSS —Dengue shock syndrome.
  98. SMR —Sub mucus resection of septum
  99. ENG —Electro nystagmography.
  100. HAR —High altitude retinopathy.
  101. PTH — Parathyroid hormone.
  102. CFS — Chronic fatigue syndrome
  103. HIE: Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
  104. MAS: Muconeal aspirate syndrome
  105. MTPJ: Metatarso phalengeal joint.
  106. ED: Erective dysfunctio
  107. HTN:   Hypertension

2. Nephrology

  1. RTA  — Renal tubular acidosis.
  2. PTH  — Parathormone.
  3. PTRA  — Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty.
  4. IPD  — Intermittent peritonial dialysis.
  5. DI  — Diabetes insipidus.
  6. ARF  — Acute renal failure.
  7. ADH  — Anti diuretic hormone.
  8. ESWL  — Extra corporeal short wave lithotripsy.
  9. BUN  — Blood urea nitrogen.
  10. CRRT  — Continuous renal replacement therapy.
  11. CRF  — Chronic renal failure.
  12. ESRD  — End stage renal disease.
  13. GN  — Glomerulonephritis.
  14. IVU  — Intravenous urography.
  15. MPGN  — Membrano proliferative glomerulo nephritis.
  16. IVP  — Intravenous pyelography.
  17. PCNL  — Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy.
  18. EPO  — Erythropiotin.
  19. PAN  — Poly arteritis nodosa.
  20. RFT  — Renal function test.
  21. RPRF  — Rapidly progressive renal failure.
  22. MCU  — Micturating cystourethrography.
  23. RPGN  — Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
  24. RVH  — Renovascular hypertension.
  25. RAS  — Renal artery stenosis.
  26. TURP  — Transurethral resection of prostate.
  27. VUR  — Vesico ureteric reflux.
  28. UTI  — Urinary tract infection.

3. Rheumatology

  1. RA —Rheumatoid arthritis.
  2. AS —Ankylosing spondylitis.
  3. SCS —Spinal canal stenosis.
  4. JRA —Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
  5. CTS —Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  6. ACTH —Adreno corticotrophic hormone.
  7. ATD —Autoimmune thyroid disease.
  8. DOMS: Delayed onset muscle soreness

4. Diabetology

  1. AN —Autonomic neuropathy.
  2. DKA —Diabetic ketoacidosis.
  3. DN —Diabetic neuropathy.
  4. DR —Diabetic retinopathy.
  5. GTT —Glucose tolerance test.
  6. GH —Growth hormone.
  7. GHD —Growth hormone deficiency.
  8. GDM —Gestational diabetes mellitus.
  9. GIGT —Gestational impaired glucose tolerance.
  10. HRT —Hormone replacement therapy.
  11. HONC —Hyperosmolar non ketotic coma.
  12. IDDM —Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  13. PDR —Proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
  14. PTH —Parathyroid hormone.
  15. IGT —Impaired glucose tolerance test.
  16. NIDDM —Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
  17. OHA —Oral hypoglycemic agents.
  18. OGTT —Oral glucose tolerance test.
  19. DKA: diabetic keto acidosis

5. Psychiatry

  1. ADHD —Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  2. NMS —Neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  3. ECT —Electro convulsive therapy.
  4. EST —Electric shock therapy.
  5. IQ —Intelligence quotient.
  6. SAD —Seasonal affective disease.
  7. ODD: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  8. CD: Conduct Disorder

6. Dermatology

  1. VDRL —Venereal disease research laboratory.
  2. SCC —Squamous cell carcinoma.
  3. PGH —Primary genital herpes.
  4. OCA —Oculocutaneous albinism.
  5. KS —Kaposi sarcoma.
  6. BCC —Basal cell carcinoma.
  7. LL —Lepromatous leprosy.
  8. BL —Boderline lepromatous leprosy.
  9. BT —Boderline tuberculoid leprosy.
  10. BB —Boderline leprosy.
  11. LP —Lichen planus.
  12. LI —Lamellar icthyosis.
  13. OHL —Oral hairy leukoplakia.
  14. PRP —Pityriasis rubra pilaris.
  15. RGH —Recurrent genital herpes.
  16. TT —Tuberculoid leprosy.
  17. SCLE —Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
  18. SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus

7. Diagnostic tests

  1. AP —Antero posterior.
  2. CT —Computed tomography.
  3. CECT —Contrast enhanced computerized tomography.
  4. DUS —Duplex ultrasonography.
  5. DSA —Digital subtraction angiography.
  6. FNAC —Fine needle aspiration cytology
  7. LP —Lumbar puncture.
  8. LAO —Left anterior oblique.
  9. MRI —Magnetic resonance imaging.
  10. PET —Positron emission topography.
  11. PA —Postero anterior.
  12. RAO —Right anterior oblique.
  13. RIA —Radio immuno assay.
  14. SPECT —Single photon emission computed tomography.
  15. PCR —Polymerase chain reaction.
  16. SAFA — Soluble antigen fluorescent antibody.
  17. SOL —Space occupying lesions.
  18. USG —Ultra sonography.
  19. CRP —C reactive protein.
  20. CFT —Compliment fixation test
  21. CFT —Compliment fixation test
  22. ELISA —Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

8. GIT

  1. APD —Acid peptic disease.
  2. CRC —Colorectal cancer.
  3. EGD —Oesophago gastroduodenoscopy.
  4. FAP —Familial adenomatous polyposis.
  5. GOR —Gastro oesophageal reflex.
  6. GORD —Gastro oesophageal reflux disease.
  7. GIST tumor — Gartrointestinal stromal tumor
  8. HNPCC —Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer.
  9. IRHS —Intraoral recurrent herpes simplex.
  10. IPSID —Immuno proliferative small intestinal disease.
  11. IBS —Irritable bowel syndrome.
  12. LOS —Lower oesophageal sphincter.
  13. MLP —Malignant lymphomatous polyposis.
  14. OC —Oesophageal cancer.
  15. ORS —Oral rehydration solution.
  16. RAU —Recurrent apthous ulcer.
  17. UGI —Upper gastro intestinal.

9. Hepato-biliary system

  1. AFP —Alpha fetoprotein.
  2. ALD —Alcoholic liver disease.
  3. APG —Arterioportography.
  4. CBD —Common bile duct.
  5. CACC —Copper associated childhood cirrhosis.
  6. CPH —Chronic persistent hepatitis.
  7. CAH —Chronic active hepatitis.
  8. CLH —Chronic lobular hepatitis.
  9. EVL —Endoscopic variceal band ligation
  10. HBA —Extra hepatic biliary atresia
  11. EHPVO —Extra hepatic portal vein obstruction.
  12. ERCP —Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
  13. GGT —Gama glutamyl transpeptidase.
  14. GABA —Gamma amino butyric acid .
  15. FNH —Focal nodular hyperplasia.
  16. HAV —Hepatitis A virus.
  17. HBV —Hepatitis B virus.
  18. HCV —Hepatitis C virus.
  19. HDV —Hepatitis delta virus.
  20. HEV —Hepatitis E virus.
  21. HBsAG —Hepatitis B surface antigen.
  22. HBIG —Hepatitis B immunoglobulin.
  23. HCC —Hepato cellular carcinoma.
  24. ICC —Indian childhood cirrhosis.
  25. MRCP —Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
  26. NCPF —Non cirrhotic portal fibrosis.
  27. OCG —Oral cholecystography.
  28. OLT —Orthotopic liver transplantation.
  29. OBT —Oral bile acid therapy.
  30. PHT —Portal hypertension.
  31. PSC —Primary sclerosing colangitis.
  32. PBC —Primary biliary cirrhosis.
  33. PTC —Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography.
  34. SPG —Spleno portography.
  35. SPV —Spleno porto venography.
  36. SOD —Sphincter of oddi dysfunction.
  37. TIPSS —Transjugular intrahepatic porto systemic shunt.
  38. TAH —Transfusion associated hepatitis.
  39. NAFLD: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease
  40. CPK: Creatinine phosphokinase

10. Cardiology

  1. AF —Atrial fibrillation
  2. AMI —Acute myocardial infarction
  3. ACLS —Advanced cardiac life support
  4. ASD —Atrial septal defect
  5. AVS —Aortic valve stenosis.
  6. BCLS —Basic cardiac life support.
  7. BMV —Balloon mitral valvotomy.
  8. BBBB —Bilateral bundle branch block
  9. BV —Balloon valvotomy.
  10. CD —Colour doppler
  11. CVS —Cardio vascular system
  12. CHB —Complete heart block.
  13. CAD —Coronary artery disease.
  14. CVD —Cardiovasculer disease.
  15. CHD —Congenital heart disease.
  16. CCF —Congestive cardiac failure.
  17. CHF —Congestive heart failure.
  18. CPR —Cardio pulmonary resuscitation
  19. CHD —Congenital heart disease.
  20. HOCM —Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.
  21. HCM —Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  22. IHD —Ischaemic heart disease.
  23. ICCU —Intensive cardiac care unit
  24. LVF —Left ventricular failure.
  25. LVH —Left ventricular hypertrophy
  26. LBBB — Left bundle branch block.
  27. MDM —Mid diastolic murmer.
  28. MVP —Mitral valve prolapse
  29. MS —Mitral stenosis/multiple sclerosis
  30. PTCA —Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  31. PFO —Patent foramen ovale
  32. PVS —Pulmonary valve stenosis.
  33. RVF — Right ventricular failure.
  34. RVF — Right ventricular failure.
  35. RVH — Right ventricular hypertrophy
  36. RBBB —Right bundle branch block.
  37. SBE —Subacute bacterial endocarditisRHD —Rheumatic heart disease.
  38. TOF —Tetralogy of fallot
  39. TS —Tricuspid stenosis.
  40. WPW —Wolff parkinson white syndrome.
  41. VSD —Ventricular septal defect.
  42. DIC —Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy
  43. DSA —Digital substration angiography.
  44. DVT —Deep vein thrombosis.
  45. PVD —Peripheral vascular disease.
  46. TAO —Thrombo angitis obliterance.

11. Haematology

  1. CML —Chronic myeloid leukemia.
  2. CLL —Chronic lymphatic leukemia.
  3. CMML —Chronic myelo monocytic leukemia.
  4. ALL —Acute lymphoid leukemia.
  5. AML —Acute myeloid leukemia.
  6. HDN —Haemolytic disease of new borne.
  7. IDD —Iron deficiency diseases.
  8. IDA —Iron deficiency anaemia.
  9. ITP —Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  10. MCV —Mean corpuscular volume.
  11. MCHC —Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration.
  12. MCH —Mean corpuscular haemoglobin.
  13. PT —Prothrombin time.
  14. PTT —Partial thromboplastin time.
  15. PMN —Polymorphonuclear leucocyte.
  16. PCV —Packed cell volume
  17. RH —Rhesus
  18. RES —Reticulo endothelial system.
  19. TSS —Toxic shock syndrome.
  20. UCTD —Undifferentiated connective tissue disease.
  21. VD —Venereal disease.
  22. STD —Sexually transmitted disease.

12. Surgery

  1. DNS —Deviated nasal septum.
  2. PTA —Post traumatic amnesia.
  3. RTA —Retrograde traumatic amnesia.
  4. LOS —Lower oesophageal sphincter.
  5. LP —Lumbar puncture.
  6. CLW —Clean lacerated wound.
  7. FNAB —Fine needle aspiration biopsy
  8. IM —Intra muscular.
  9. IV —Intra venous.
  10. ICP: Intra-cranial pressure

13. Gynecology and Obstetrics

  1. ART —Assisted reproductive technology.
  2. AIH —Artificial insemination husband
  3. AID —Artificial insemination donor.
  4. CPT —Complete perineal tear.
  5. CPP —Chronic pelvic pain.
  6. DUB —Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
  7. D&C —Dilatation and curretage.
  8. FSH —Follicle stimulating hormone.
  9. HSG —Hysterosalpingography.
  10. IUI —Intrauterine insemination.
  11. IVF. ET —In vitro fertilisation & embryo transfer.
  12. IUCD —Intrauterine contraceptive device.
  13. LBP —Low back pain.
  14. MIST —Micro insemination sperm transfer.
  15. MR —Menstrual regulation.
  16. OGN —Oestrogen.
  17. OCP —Oral contraceptive pill.
  18. ORT —Oral oestrogen replacement therapy
  19. PGN —Progestron.
  20. PMS —Premenstrual syndrome.
  21. SCMC —Sperm cervical mucus contact test
  22. VVF —Vesico vaginal fistula.
  23. TVS —Trans vaginal sonography.
  24. PID —Pelvic inflammatory disease.
  25. PCOS —Poly cystic ovarian syndrome.
  26. PCT —Post coital test.
  27. RV —Retroversion.
  28. EDD —Expected date of delivery.
  29. FHS —Fetal heart sound.
  30. FHR —Fetal heart rate.
  31. GTD —Gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  32. GTN —Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  33. HCG —Human chorionic gonadotrophin.
  34. IUGR —Intrauterine growth retardation.
  35. IUD —Intrauterine death.
  36. LMP —Last menstrual period.
  37. LBW —Low birth weight.
  38. MCH&FP —Maternal child health & family planning
  39. PV —Per vaginal.
  40. PIH —Pregnancy induced hypertension.
  41. SGA —Small for gestational age.
  42. SFD —Small for date.
  43. VLBW —Very low birth weight.
  44. CPD —Cephalo pelvic dispropotion.
  45. CDH —Congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
  46. CRL —Crown rump length.
  47. CVS —Chorionic villus sampling.
  48. BOH —Bad obstetric history.
  49. BPD —Biparaital diameter.
  50. AFP —Alpha fetoprotein.
  51. ANC —Antenatal checkup
  52. APH —Antepartum haemorrhage.
  53. VDRL —Vereal disease research laboratory.

14. Pediatrics

  1. DPT —Diptheria pertussis tetanus.
  2. ICMR —Indian council of medical research.
  3. MMR —Measles mumps rubella
  4. RCT —Randomised controlled trials.
  5. UNICEF —United nations international childrens emergency fund

15. Respiratory system

  1. TPE —Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.
  2. RLL —Right lower lobe(lung).
  3. RADS —Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome.
  4. RPA —Right pulmonary artery.
  5. RUL —Right upper lobe(lung).
  6. PPV —Positive pressure ventilator.
  7. PSV  — Pressure support ventilation.
  8. RV  — Residual volume.
  9. RQ  — Respiratory quotient.
  10. OSA  — Obstructive sleep apnea.
  11. SCLC  — Small cell lung cancer.
  12. UAO  — Upper airway obstruction.
  13. TV  — Tidal volume.
  14. SOB  — Shortness of breath.
  15. TLC  — Total lung capacity.
  16. PPH  — Primary pulmonary hypertension.
  17. ARDS  — Adult respiratory distress syndrome.
  18. ARI  — Acute respiratory infections.
  19. BHL  — Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy.
  20. COPD  — Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  21. CSA   — Central sleep apnoea.
  22. EKY  — Electro kymogram
  23. HAPO  — High altitude pulmonary oedema
  24. LPA  — Left pulmonary artery.
  25. LFT  — Lung function test.
  26. VR  — Vocal resonance.
  27. VF  — Vocal fremitus.
  28. VC  — Vital capacity.

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque

Family Homoeopathic clinic

N. Paravur

rafi Homoeopathy

Homeopathic Etymology

January 26th, 2010

Apart from Chemistry and Botany, Dr Hahnemann was also interested in the scientific study of different languages, which really helped him while translating various works. At the age of 22, he mastered different languages like Greek, Latin, English, Italian, Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, Spanish and German.

Now the literature of homeopathy is fully translated into English, hence the medium of instruction in homeopathic curriculum is English. However, we should know certain terms used in the original literature by the master and his disciples. It is said that by translating a word, the original meaning may slightly deviate, or the exact expression may change slightly. But the great Hahnemann and some of his followers could translate the words without any errors.

It is always good to know the original words and the source of origin. It also strengthens the historical backing.

Many friends in Ayurveda are facing difficulty because of lack of proper knowledge in Sanskrit. Our literature is fully translated in to English by the stalwarts. Otherwise we would have to study German in the first year of our curriculum. Of course, learning a language is a wonderful experience, above all, it is a part of international integration.

Here are some words used in the literature of Homeopathy:

Latin words

Aude sapare: Dare to be wise.

Cito toto edjento: It was the motto of Asclepiades, which means: speedily safely and agreeably.

Materia pecans: Material cause of the diseases.

Materia medica: Medical material

Novum organum scientiarum: It is the work of Lord Bacon (written in 1620). It means new organ of logical works.

Reine arzneimittellehre: Materia medica pura

Insuratio magma: It is the work of Bacon. It means great instauration.

Fragmenta de veribus medicamentorum positivus:  published by Dr Hahnemann in 1805. It means fragmentary observations relative to the positive powers of medicines.

Similia similibus curantur: It means like cures like (let like be treated by like)

Prima causa morbi: Primary cause of the disease.

Psora: It means itch (also used in Greek)

Repertorium (0r repertire) The word repertory is originated from this word. It means an inventory, a table or a compendium where the information is so arranged that is easy to find.

Rubrica: The word rubric is taken from Rubrica. It means heading, a guiding rule.

Tolle causm: Remove the cause.

Non  inutilis vixi: Not lived in vain. It is the inscription on Hahnemann’s grave.

Vis medicatrix naturae: The healing power of nature.

Organum: Organ or tool.

Greek words

Organon: It was Aristotle who used this word for the first time. It means instrument of work, a method of scientific investigation.

Homoeos: It means similar.

Pathos: It means suffering.

Miasma: It means heavy vaporous exhalations, noxious influences, polluted material, putrid vegetable matter etc.

Psora agria: It is the Greek word for psora.

Psora: Means itch (also used in Latin)

German words

Beruf: This word was used by Hahnemann in the first aphorism of organon. It means mission.

Organon der Rationelien Heilkunde: It was the title given to the first edition of Organon. It means Organon of rational art of healing.

Reine arzneimittellehre: It means pure medicinal teachings. It is the German title for Materia medica pura.

Die chronischen karnleit: Chronic diseases.

Medicamens au globule: It means medicine of the globules. It was the name given to 50 millesimal potency.

Medicamens a la goultte: It means medicines of the drop. It was the name given to Centesimal potency.

Heikunde der erfahrung: Medicine of experience published in 1805.  It is considered as the forerunner of Organon.

Mongrel sects: Means cross breed dogs. This word was used by Hahnemann to criticize those homeopaths who use palliation to avoid looking for the correct remedy(foot note to 149).

Hebrew word

Psorat: It means a groove or fault. Psora is originated from this word.


The above given are a few words related with Homoeopathy. I will be glad to get a few more additions or corrections from the readers.

Dr Muhammed Rafeeque BHMS
Family Homoeopathic Clinic
Kerala, India.

rafi Homoeopathy